2022 Sustainable Cities Index

How sustainable is your city?

Our inaugural Sustainable Cities Index ranks 50 global cities on air quality, emissions, renewable energy and other sustainability measures.
Sustainable cities report card

The Corporate Knights Sustainable Cities Index is the world’s first interactive, crowd-sourced sustainability index for cities. When the index goes live on June 15, 2022, local government officials will be able to log in to our user-friendly data hub, provide 15 simple data points, and join municipalities from around the world in a comparative assessment of sustainability metrics. The interactive data hub will promote engagement with the participating cities and continuous improvements in the index.

We have drawn on leading world experts and our 20 years of experience in rating and ranking to produce a concise and robust index that tracks 12 key indicators of urban sustainability related to climate change, air quality, land use, transportation, water, waste, policy, and resilience.

Our research division has seeded the quantitative, outcomes- focused index with an initial group of 50 cities using public data that will grow as cities visit the interactive data hub and submit their metrics to the database.

Click on each letter grade below so see which cities scored A, B, C, D or F.

Sustainable Cities Report CARD

City: Shanghai

Country: China

Rank: 49

Overall Grade: F

Population: 24153000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

F
 
 
 
 
 

City: Tianjin

Country: China

Rank: 50

Overall Grade: F

Population: 12784000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

F
 
 
 
 
 

City: Singapore

Country: Singapore

Rank: 45

Overall Grade: D

Population: 5685807


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
D
 
 
 

City: Istanbul

Country: Turkey

Rank: 46

Overall Grade: D

Population: 15462452


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
D
 
 
 

City: Johannesburg

Country: South Africa

Rank: 47

Overall Grade: D

Population: 5870000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
D
 
 
 

City: Guangzhou

Country: China

Rank: 48

Overall Grade: D

Population: 15305900


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
D
 
 
 

City: Medellin

Country: Colombia

Rank: 27

Overall Grade: C

Population: 2533424


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Moscow

Country: Russian Federation

Rank: 28

Overall Grade: C

Population: 12655050


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
B
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Los Angeles

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 29

Overall Grade: C

Population: 4021488


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Beijing

Country: China

Rank: 30

Overall Grade: C

Population: 18590000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
B
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Mexico City

Country: Mexico

Rank: 31

Overall Grade: C

Population: 9041395


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Seattle

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 32

Overall Grade: C

Population: 744955


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Dhaka

Country: Bangladesh

Rank: 33

Overall Grade: C

Population: 12000000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
 
A

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Shenzhen

Country: China

Rank: 34

Overall Grade: C

Population: 11908000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
C
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Buenos Aires

Country: Argentina

Rank: 35

Overall Grade: C

Population: 3068043


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Bogota

Country: Colombia

Rank: 36

Overall Grade: C

Population: 7333415


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Canberra

Country: Australia

Rank: 37

Overall Grade: C

Population: 420960


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Minneapolis

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 38

Overall Grade: C

Population: 429606


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
B
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Houston

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 39

Overall Grade: C

Population: 2320268


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

F
 
 
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Lagos

Country: Nigeria

Rank: 40

Overall Grade: C

Population: 21000000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
 
A

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Chicago

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 41

Overall Grade: C

Population: 2693976


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
B
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Sao Paulo

Country: Brazil

Rank: 42

Overall Grade: C

Population: 12038000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Dar es Salaam

Country: Tanzania

Rank: 43

Overall Grade: C

Population: 6041000


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
 
A

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
D
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Mumbai

Country: India

Rank: 44

Overall Grade: C

Population: 12828821


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
 
A

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

F
 
 
 
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
C
 
 

City: Toronto

Country: Canada

Rank: 9

Overall Grade: B

Population: 2,956,024

Performance Highlights

Toronto’s sustainability performance stacks up nearly as high as the CN Tower. It’s among the top three cities in Canada in the 2022 index universe on a long list of indicators: lowest water consumption per capita, lowest vehicle dependency, best air quality, most open public space and most sustainable policies enacted.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Berlin

Country: Germany

Rank: 10

Overall Grade: B

Population: 3,769,000

Performance Highlights

Renowned for its museums, Berlin is also known for urban sustainability leadership and has been reducing GHG emissions since the 1990s. It’s no surprise that the City of Berlin has enacted the most sustainable policies in Europe in the 2022 index universe. Further, Berliners are among the lowest water consumers per capita and the least dependent on vehicles in Europe.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
B
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Ottawa

Country: Canada

Rank: 11

Overall Grade: B

Population: 1,006,211

Performance Highlights

  • Top 3 best road infrastructure efficiency in the 2022 index universe in Canada
  • Top 3 most sustainable transport in Canada
  • Top 3 lowest solid waste generated in Canada

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Cape Town

Country: South Africa

Rank: 12

Overall Grade: B

Population: 4,423,834

Performance Highlights

  • Best air quality in the 2022 index universe in Africa
  • Most open public space in Africa
  • Most sustainable policies enacted in Africa
  • Top 3 lowest vehicle dependency in Africa

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Madrid

Country: Spain

Rank: 13

Overall Grade: B

Population: 3,223,334

Performance Highlights

  • Top 3 lowest consumption-based emissions in the 2022 index universe in Europe and UK
  • Top 3 lowest vehicle dependency in Europe and UK
  • Top 3 sustainable transport in Europe and UK
  • Top 5 best air quality in Europe and UK

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Curitiba

Country: Brazil

Rank: 14

Overall Grade: B

Population: 1,948,626

Performance Highlights

  • Best air quality in the 2022 index universe in Central and South America region
  • Most open public space in Central and South America region
  • Highest population with water access in Central and South America region
  • Top 3 most sustainable policies in Central and South America region
  • Top 3 lowest water consumption in Central and South America region

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Accra

Country: Ghana

Rank: 15

Overall Grade: B

Population: 2,514,005

Performance Highlights

  • Lowest Scope 1 emissions in the 2022 index universe in Africa
  • Lowest consumption-based emissions in Africa
  • Top 3 highest road infrastructure efficiency in Africa
  • Top 3 highest sustainable transport in Africa
  • Top 3 lowest vehicle dependency in Africa
  • Top 3 lowest water consumption in Africa
  • Top 3 lowest solid waste generated in Africa

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
 
A

Air Quality

F
 
 
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: San Francisco

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 16

Overall Grade: B

Population: 881,549

Performance Highlights

  • Top 3 most open public space in the 2022 index universe in United States
  • Top 3 lowest water consumption in United States
  • Top 3 best air quality in United States
  • Top 3 highest sustainable transport in United States
  • Top 3 most sustainable in United States

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Paris

Country: France

Rank: 17

Overall Grade: B

Population: 2,210,875

Performance Highlights

  • Highest sustainable transport in the 2022 index universe in Europe and UK
  • Top 3 lowest consumption-based emissions in Europe and UK
  • Top 3 most sustainable policies in Europe and UK

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Halifax

Country: Canada

Rank: 18

Overall Grade: B

Population: 421,939

Performance Highlights

  • Highest road infrastructure efficiency in the 2022 index universe in Canada
  • Top 3 lowest vehicle dependency in Canada
  • Top 3 lowest solid waste generated in Canada

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: New York City

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 19

Overall Grade: B

Population: 8,399,000

Performance Highlights

  • Highest sustainable transport in the 2022 index universe in United States
  • Lowest vehicle dependency in United States
  • Top 3 best air quality in United States
  • Top 3 most sustainable policies in United States

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Montreal

Country: Canada

Rank: 20

Overall Grade: B

Population: 2,069,849

Performance Highlights

  • Highest sustainable transport in the 2022 index universe in Canada
  • Lowest vehicle dependency in Canada
  • Lowest water consumption in Canada
  • Top 3 lowest Scope 1 GHG emissions in Canada
  • Top 3 lowest consumption-based emissions in Canada

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Edmonton

Country: Canada

Rank: 21

Overall Grade: B

Population: 1047526


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Calgary

Country: Canada

Rank: 22

Overall Grade: B

Population: 1306784


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
D
 
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Rio de Janeiro

Country: Brazil

Rank: 23

Overall Grade: B

Population: 6747815


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
 
B
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
D
 
 
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Washington

Country: United States of America (USA)

Rank: 24

Overall Grade: B

Population: 708253


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
B
 

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Seoul

Country: Korea (South)

Rank: 25

Overall Grade: B

Population: 9911088


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
D
 
 
 

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Sydney

Country: Australia

Rank: 26

Overall Grade: B

Population: 248736


Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
B
 

City: Stockholm

Country: Sweden

Rank: 1

Overall Grade: A+

Population: 981,105

Performance Highlights

As the highest-performing city in the 2022 Sustainable Cities Index universe, Stockholm is a leader in urban sustainability. It has the lowest Scope 1 GHG emissions per capita in Europe, so it’s no surprise that the Swedish capital has some of the best air quality of European cities. Both residents and visitors enjoy Stockholm's wealth of open space, such as Djurgården and Ivar Los Park. Stockholmers also have the lowest number of vehicles per household of European cities in the 2022 index universe and opt for more sustainable transport modes.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Oslo

Country: Norway

Rank: 2

Overall Grade: A

Population: 697,010

Performance Highlights

Located in the country with the highest score on climate change resilience, Oslo is able to leverage Norway’s resources to adapt to climate change disasters while having fairly low vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. Oslovians enjoy one of the most efficient road networks and are among the lowest producers of solid waste per capita in Europe in the 2022 index universe. Similar to its Nordic neighbour, Stockholm, Oslo also has one of the lowest Scope 1 GHG emissions per capita in Europe.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Copenhagen

Country: Denmark

Rank: 3

Overall Grade: A

Population: 638,147

Performance Highlights

Danes living in Copenhagen consume the least amount of water per capita than any other European city in the 2022 index universe. Like Oslo, Copenhagen has one of the lowest Scope 1 GHG emissions per capita in Europe and one of the most efficient road networks in Europe. 

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Lahti

Country: Finland

Rank: 4

Overall Grade: A

Population: 120,133

Performance Highlights

This small but (sustainably) mighty city boasts the best air quality and most efficient road network in the entire 2022 Sustainable Cities Index universe. Lahti’s residents are among the lowest consumers of water and producers of solid waste per capita in European cities. Lahti is also well poised for climate change resilience, with Finland having few climate change disasters and a high level of readiness to adapt to potential climate change impacts.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: London

Country: United Kingdom (Britain / UK)

Rank: 5

Overall Grade: A

Population: 8,908,081

Performance Highlights

With nearly nine million inhabitants, London is the highest-performing megacity on the 2022 index. London is a leader among European cities in the number of sustainable policies it has enacted and its climate change resilience. With historic green spaces like Regent’s Park and Hyde Park, the City of London is one of the cities with the most open public space in Europe in the 2022 index universe. Londoners are also among the lowest water consumers and solid waste producers per capita in Europe.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Helsinki

Country: Finland

Rank: 6

Overall Grade: A

Population: 656,920

Performance Highlights

This coastal city has some of the best air quality and largest area of open spaces in Europe in the 2022 index universe. Because of Helsinki’s compact nature, sustainable modes of transport like walking, cycling or public transportation are among the highest in Europe. Additionally, Helsinkians produce less solid waste per capita than any other European city in the 2022 index universe. Like its Nordic neighbours, Lahti and Oslo, Helsinki is able to access Finland’s vast financial resources for adapting to climate change emergencies, with fairly low vulnerability, with one of the top climate change resilience scores of cities in Europe.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
 
A

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
C
 
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Tokyo

Country: Japan

Rank: 7

Overall Grade: A

Population: 13,957,977

Performance Highlights

Tokyo, a megacity sustainability leader, takes the cake with the best air quality and best road infrastructure efficiency of all cities in Asia and Oceania in the 2022 index universe. Home to beautiful parks like Shinjuku Gyoen and Yoyogi Park, Tokyo ranks high in Asia and Oceania for open public space. Tokyoites are among the lowest producers of consumption-based emissions and solid waste per capita in Asia and Oceania. As a whole, households in Tokyo have one of the lowest dependencies on vehicles of cities in Asia and Oceania.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
 
B
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
B
 

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

City: Vancouver

Country: Canada

Rank: 8

Overall Grade: A

Population: 654,000

Performance Highlights

On Canada’s west coast, the City of Vancouver is poised between the mountains and the Strait of Georgia, so it’s no surprise that Vancouver has the best air quality in Canada in the 2022 index universe. Vancouver produces the lowest Scope 1 GHG emissions and solid waste per capita in Canada. The Vancouver municipal government has enacted many sustainable policies that foster its urban sustainability leadership. Compared to the rest of Canada, Vancouver enjoys a wealth of open public space.

Consumption-based climate emissions

 
 
 
C
 
 

Air Quality

 
 
 
 
 
A

Climate Change Resiliance

 
 
 
 
 
A

Transportation (Public Transit, Walking, Cycling)

 
 
 
C
 
 

Renewable energy policy

 
 
 
 
 
A

Overall grade

 
 
 
 
 
A

INDICATORS

The 2022 Sustainable Cities Index is composed of 12 quantitative indicators of environmental sustainability performance. The method is simple: for each of the indicators, the necessary data points are collected, either from public data sources or directly from the cities themselves, through our interactive data hub.

Values for each of the 12 indicators are converted to a score out of 1.0. Based on the scores of each indicator, each city will receive a letter grade and rank for their overall score on the index.Detailed scoring method is available in the full methodology document.

IndicatorMethodWeight
Scope 1 GHG emissions per capitaDivide the city’s sector-based inventory of Scope 1 emissions by the city’s population. This indicator reflects fossil fuel consumption in the city.10%
Consumption-based Emissions per capitaDivide the city’s consumption based GHG emissions inventory by the city's population. Corporate Knights developed a simplified method for estimating a city’s consumption-based inventory, described below. Cities’ GHG footprints typically far exceed the emissions included in their direct, sector-based inventories, and this indicator captures that aspect of urban sustainability.10%
Air QualityMicrograms of fine particulates (less than 2.5 μm diameter) per cubic metre of air, a standard indicator of air quality.20%
Open Public SpaceDivide city area for public parks, recreation areas, greenways, and other areas accessible to the public by total city area.5%
Sustainable Transport Mode ShareDivide number of trips by sustainable modes (walking, cycling, or public transit) by the total of all trips.5%
Automobile DependenceDivide number of registered road vehicles by number of households.5%
Road Infrastructure EfficiencyDivide the length of the road network in kilometres by square kilometres of city area.5%
Water ConsumptionThe average amount of water consumed in litres per capita per day.5%
Potable Water AccessThe percentage of city population with access to potable water.5%
Solid Waste GeneratedDivide the amount of municipal solid waste generated in tonnes per year by the city population.10%
Climate Change ResilienceDivide the national Notre Dame GAIN Readiness Score by the Notre Dame GAIN Vulnerability Score. A higher ratio indicates a high level of readiness for climate disasters and/or a low level of vulnerability to climate disasters.10%
Renewable Energy PolicyStarting with an assessment of the number of key policies tracked by REN21 that the city has enacted: (i) renewable energy target, (ii) electric vehicle target, (iii) emission reduction target, (iv) net-zero GHG target, and (v) renewable energy enabling policy. Amended with additional information to support renewable energy policies and targets as provided by cities.10%

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